Guide Researching Cultural Differences in Health

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At an advanced level, PHN knowledge and competencies prepare nurses to take a leadership role to assess assets and needs of communities and populations and to propose solutions in partnership. Community- or population-focused solutions can have widespread influence on health and illness patterns of multiple levels of clients including individuals, families, groups, neighborhoods, communities, and the broader population ACHNE, The purpose of this article is to describe evolving roles in the specialty of public health nursing.

A brief history of PHN provides a historical and philosophical background for current practice. A model for community participation with ethnographic orientation, and an exemplar of its use in a rural youth substance use prevention project, illustrates current advanced PHN practice. The article concludes with a discussion of essential PHN competencies, evidence that supports evolving PHN roles, and implications for contemporary public health nursing roles. Prevention and curative care have been distinct concepts since ancient times. The notion of health care as healing, or treating those already sick, maintained dominance over preventive care for many centuries.

During the mid th century however, new scientific understanding of transmission of disease enabled successful sanitation interventions that prevented disease on a large scale. To carry preventive care forward, district nursing evolved as the first role for public health nurses, and Florence Nightingale concurrently professionalized nursing as an occupation Brainard, , Evolving PHN practice required an understanding of how culture, economics, politics, psychosocial problems, and sanitation influenced health and illness and the lives of patients and families Fitzpatrick, Public health nursing in the United States U.

The new public health nursing role struggled, and continues to struggle, with appropriate interventions that would achieve quick results, but also leave lasting improvements in the population. With the advent of preventive health care, a moral tension arose between giving resources to the needy, and teaching them how to meet their own needs.

Nursing of the acutely ill fits more easily into a model of one-way flow of resources from nurse to patient Buhler-Wilkerson, The Christian principle of helping those who help themselves guided this tension, but could not easily resolve it Brainard, , Giving free services or free supplies to the poor was seen as creating dependency and upsetting the natural social fabric of communities.

Public health nurses have addressed this moral tension over many years with innovative solutions that seek positive health outcomes, as well as advocate for vulnerable populations. By the early s, public health nursing roles extended beyond the care of the sick to encompass advocacy, community organizing, health education, and political reform American Nurses Association [ANA], Several examples of exceptional PHN initiatives show how these roles improved the health of communities and populations.

Public health nurses and other community professionals have continued to recognize the advantages of community participatory methods, including the potential for more effective intervention outcomes and capacity-building for long term benefit to the community Savage et al. The community participation and ethnographic model see Figure 1 is an innovative framework that demonstrates evolving public health nursing practice.

The community participation and ethnographic model builds on assumptions underlying community-based participatory research CBPR and encourages engagement of community members and trusted community leaders in processes from problem identification to project evaluation and dissemination. The community participation and ethnographic model is especially appropriate for public health nurses working with communities and populations because it provides a framework that builds upon local community knowledge.

This enables public health nurses and their community partners to be sensitive to the ecological context and culture. The model is a useful guide for developing programs to promote healthy communities and health equality Isreal et al. It is an approach that allows socio-cultural contexts, systems, and meaning to emerge through a collaborative process between public health nurses and community members.

Early ethnographic work in substance use prevention Agar, ; Agar, ; Trotter, provided a foundation for the community participation and ethnographic model. Karim pointed out that the work of Agar ; and Trotter described the importance of acquiring local community knowledge of substance nonuse and use to provide a richer understanding of the health-related assets and needs of the community; circumstances and environment surrounding substance-related health and illness; community and population conditions; and attitudes, beliefs, and traditions directed toward substance nonuse- or use-related health risk behaviors.

Unique strategies utilized in the community participation and ethnographic model include mapping, e. GIS is a tool that facilitates assessment and analysis of the ecological context of a population, as well as phenomena such as youth substance nonuse and use within the community Aronson et al.

With community input, maps can be generated depicting areas where community members, i. Photovoice, or picture-taking to create a photo narrative, incorporates CBPR assumptions and enables economically and politically disenfranchised populations to express themselves with greater voice. Photovoice uses pictures taken by community members to promote effective sharing of beliefs, knowledge, and thoughts about a given topic.

Practitioners or researchers have used Photovoice to facilitate group conversations and develop action steps Tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use remain pervasive problems worldwide and are responsible for a large proportion of morbidity and mortality in the US CDC, Healthy People HP U.

Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS], pointed to the long-term health threat of adolescent substance use and the need to increase the proportion of adolescents who remain substance free. Many rural counties, however, have little knowledge of effective intervention strategies to prevent adolescent substance use.

Healthy People DHHS, recommended increasing population-oriented, primary prevention programs provided by community-based organizations to prevent youth tobacco, alcohol, and drug use. A project involving the community participation and ethnographic model provides an exemplar of evolving PHN roles in community participatory health promotion.

An inter-professional team, led by an advanced practice public health nurse and a human development specialist, is currently using these innovative, community participatory strategies, including GIS mapping and Photovoice, to design a substance use prevention program in a rural tobacco-growing county in the south. Public health nurses and interdisciplinary researchers created a team with youths, parents, and community leaders, to complete a comprehensive community and environmental assessment of the county, its rural ecological context and culture; and, to review evidence-based prevention programs, as the foundation for a youth substance use prevention program that will be acceptable, effective, relevant, and sustainable by the rural county.

The inter-professional research team previously worked with youths, parents, and community leaders in a rural tobacco-growing county of Virginia on two collaborative research projects focused on youth tobacco prevention Kulbok et al. With first-hand knowledge of the challenges faced by this rural county when attempting to prevent youth substance use, the team proposed and received funding for a project Kulbok, Meszaros, Bond et al.

The project aims were to:. This youth substance use prevention project is currently in year three, the final stages of designing and testing a preventive intervention with the CPRT. The project, which is being implemented in stages that correspond to the aims, was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Boards of the University of Virginia and Virginia Tech.

The inter-professional project team currently includes an advanced practice public health nurse and specialists from anthropology, architecture and urban planning, epidemiology, human development, and psychology. The team also includes public health nursing and psychology doctoral students. The community members of the CPRT, during the course of the three year project, included four community leaders, twelve youths, and eight parents. In order to gather qualitative data about substance use in this county, the team completed 14 individual interviews of community leaders and five youth group interviews, with a total of 34 youths, 14 to 18 years of age.

The team also completed one group interview with seven parents. Analysis of the data from these multiple sources was integrated into a comprehensive community assessment by the CPRT. Guided by the community participatory and ethnographic model, and using innovative strategies i. The data used to create these maps was collected during monthly CPRT meetings held in the county and semi-structured interviews conducted by teams of CPRT members with community leaders, youths, and parents.

Interview questions were developed by the CPRT to obtain community assessment data, and identify assets and needs. Public health nurses can use GIS mapping to visualize and analyze assessment data more effectively. Figure 2. Photovoice is another method public health nurses can use in the community assessment process. The CPRT utilized the Photovoice method as part of their community assessment and in response to semi-structured interview questions about their rural county.

Five youths received instructions to take pictures as a visual means of answering the community assessment questions. During the timeframe that the community assessment was conducted, the CPRT used nominal group process to analyze and select six relevant effectiveness criteria for a youth substance use prevention program in their rural county. The CPRT then examined three existing substance use prevention programs with effectiveness data to assess whether they met these criteria.


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Selection of a prevention program that meets the chosen effectiveness criteria and fits with the ecological context and culture of their rural community is a challenging process. It is ongoing at this time and involves consideration of multi-level factors identified in the community assessment process including culture, economics, politics, and psychosocial concerns related to youth substance nonuse and use. Although the CBPR process is challenging, the resulting local knowledge and understanding of the unique characteristics of this rural county are providing direction in the selection of a program.

This exemplar demonstrates the need for specialized knowledge, competencies, and skills utilized by public health nurses to successfully carry out complex assessments and interventions in communities. Emphasis on essential knowledge and skills in core PHN competencies and education helps to ensure that public health nurses are prepared to move their nursing practice into the future as leaders in community participatory health promotion and prevention.

Public health nurses can acquire important knowledge, competencies, and skills to promote and protect the health of communities and populations by understanding and applying CBPR approaches. These competencies and skills are requisite for public health nurses to serve in contemporary, evolving roles with communities and populations that face complex, multifaceted challenges Levin et al.

The nature of many threats is not unlike threats that faced PHN leaders in the early 20 th century. They involve an appreciation of culture, economics, politics, and psychosocial problems as determinants of health and illness. By using CBPR methods, public health nurses can apply and enhance these competencies. Analytic assessment skills represent an important domain of PHN competencies utilized when applying community participatory health promotion strategies Quad Council, Public health nurses should develop analytic assessment skills to pursue health promotion and prevention in partnership with communities facing complex challenges.

For example, when Andrews et al.

How Cultural Background Affects Health

Therefore, they were able to reveal multi-level factors related to smoking patterns of that community by partnering with community insiders, which provided a foundation for developing effective smoking cessation interventions. Public health nurses can improve their cultural competence through the use of participatory practices with diverse communities. Public health nurses can improve their cultural competence through the use of participatory practices with diverse communities Marcus et al.

Listed here are several examples of research supporting acquisition of cultural competence skills using a community participatory approach:. Program planning skills are used in community participation approaches to optimize community health promotion and disease prevention by public health nurses Quad Council, In program planning for community health promotion and prevention, PHNs can plan evidence-based programs by using in-depth analytic assessment skills, and can implement programs more effectively by utilizing collaborations and partnerships gained from the CBPR method Andrews et al.

Public health nurses can develop sustainable programs and build community capacity for health promotion by taking into account the ecological context of the community from an ethnographic assessment. Public health nurses can develop sustainable programs and build community capacity for health promotion by taking into account the ecological context of the community from an ethnographic assessment Andrews et al.

Perry and Hoffman demonstrated how PHNs can incorporate findings from their assessment into program development by having lively discussions and distributing information to develop the tailored program in the community. PHNs strategically utilized these partnerships to design and implement the program.

These CBPR strategies were also utilized successfully to develop effective prevention and intervention programs including both primary and secondary prevention programs for cardiovascular disease prevention Fletcher et al. Community dimensions of practice skills focus on communication, collaboration, and linkages between public health nurses and the many stakeholders in a community Quad Council, PHNs can develop these skills by building community capacity and engaging community members and partners to design more effective, sustainable health-promoting programs.

Public health nurses are able to gain these skills by creating collaborative partnerships with community leaders and stakeholders and identifying resources and solutions to problems through the CBPR method Fletcher et al. Ultimately, PHNs can develop these skills by building community capacity and engaging community members and partners to design more effective, sustainable health-promoting programs. Again, there are examples of research that used a community participatory approach to foster these community practice skills.

Andrews et al. In another study, PHNs built partnerships with community stakeholders Hassouneh et al. As shown in these examples, public health nurses can use CBPR to enhance partnerships and empower community members as participants by including them in the decision-making processes of assessment and program planning Andrews et al. The important skills of analytic assessment, cultural competence, program planning, and community dimensions of practice are critical for pursuing community health promotion goals as public health nurses become more widely involved in community participatory approaches.

Other important competencies for the health promotion role are required for public health nurses, including communication; financial planning and management; leadership and systems thinking; policy development ; and public health science Quad Council, Public health nurses can further develop these skills by continuing to engage in community participatory practices. For example, PHN practice utilizes public health science knowledge, competencies, and skills by partnering with public health educators and researchers to develop evidence-based prevention interventions programs and thus contribute to nursing science.

Community initiatives by PHNs can contribute to the development of policies based on in-depth evidence, assist community health advocates, and lead to improved long term outcomes Fletcher et al. Public health nursing practice at the generalist and advanced or specialist level is competency based. PHN core competencies include knowledge and skills derived from the core public health workforce competencies, which were developed by the Council on Linkages COL Council on Linkages, These core competencies are necessary to implement community participatory health promoting roles.

These national initiatives provide new opportunities for emerging roles in PHN focused on community health promotion and prevention practices. The community participation and ethnographic model includes important long-standing PHN processes, as well as innovative strategies that public health nurses can utilize in community assessment and prevention program development. Using PHN core competencies Quad Council, and guided by the community participation and ethnographic model, public health nurses can empower communities and populations to become more involved in community health promotion and prevention.

This empowerment can reduce health threats and increase health equity. As the roles of public health nurses as advocates, collaborators, educators, partners, policy-makers, and researchers evolve in the area of community health promotion and prevention, greater emphasis on community participatory and ethnographic approaches in PHN education will provide benefits to students at the generalist and advanced practice levels Zandee et al.

Moreover, basic and advanced public health nursing practice roles, which emphasize inter-professional collaboration, community participatory strategies, and the importance of local knowledge to address community health problems, will continue to contribute to improved community and population health outcomes. Kulbok is the principal investigator of an inter-professional, cross-institution, community-based participatory research project funded by the Virginia Foundation for Healthy Youth to design a substance use prevention program with youth, parents, and community leaders in a rural tobacco-growing county.

She earned her doctorate at Boston University and did postdoctoral work in psychiatric epidemiology at Washington University in St. Her planned doctoral research is to examine the community food environment in an economically disadvantaged rural Appalachian area, to identify influences on food choices that may lead to obesity and other health conditions.

Thatcher previously worked as a public health nurse in a local health department, as a care coordinator in a primary care practice, as an inpatient nurse in a hospital, and as a rural outreach nurse to Hispanic migrant farmworkers. As a BSN student, Ms. Thatcher was a founding member of Nursing Students Without Borders, an organization that connects nursing students to international communities.

She is working with in a community based participatory research team to design a youth substance use prevention program in a rural county. Peggy S. Meszaros, PhD. E-mail: meszaros vt. Meszaros is the William E. During more than 30 years of work in higher education, her research interests have focused on positive youth development, technology impacts, human ecological, family, and gender issues.

Reframing research

She has published over 90 scholarly articles, 3 books, numerous book chapters and received over six million dollars in external research grants. Agar , M. Ethnography and the addict. In Nadar, L. Cultural Illness and Health.

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Speaking of ethnography. Public health nursing: Scope and standards of practice. Anderson , E. Community as partner: Theory and practice in nursing 6th ed. Anderson , N. Community-based approaches to strengthen cultural competency in nursing education and practice. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 18 1-S , 49ss. Andrews , J. Using community-based participatory research to develop a culturally sensitive smoking cessation intervention with public housing neighborhoods.

Ethnicity and Disease, 17 2 , Aronson , R. Ethnographically informed community evaluation: A framework and approach for evaluating community-based initiatives. Maternal Child Health Journal, 11 2 , Neighborhood mapping and evaluation: A methodology for participatory community health initiatives. Maternal Child Health Journal , 11 4 , — Association of Community Health Nursing Educators Latham, NY: Author. Blake , B. Geographical mapping of unmarried teen births and selected sociodemographic variables. Public Health Nursing , 18 1 , Brainard , A.

However, with the increase of younger employees entering the workforce who had different expectations, Samsung had to make a change. Management made the decision to change the workday from five-to-nine to seven-to-four [ 15 ]. Changing the hours of the workday required employees to work together and it also required managers and supervisors to have a more active role in completing daily tasks.

The seven-to-four schedule was a cultural shift that was instigated by new employees entering the company with a different outlook towards work and personal time. Prior to the change, employees were expected to stay on the job until it was completed. With the change the office closed at four and everything stopped.

Now employees have to proactively plan their workday in order to ensure that everything is accomplished in a timely fashion. Samsung has been able to become a global leader because of its commitment to the development of technological capabilities [ 16 ]. The focus on innovation requires the sharing of business practices and technology throughout the organization.

Samsung must communicate with employees and customers simultaneously to ensure that company objectives are met. Samsung has used these competitive advantages to enhance its relationship with customers and expand globally. Hyundai Motor Company was formed in and has established itself as company that focuses on quality improvement and innovation [ 17 ].

For this expansion to take place requires effective communication that is able to overcome cultural barriers and accomplish global management initiatives. Over the years Hyundai has learned valuable lessons on the importance of knowing and valuing the needs of its customers. In the early s, Hyundai experienced problems when trying to expand production to Canada.

The primary issue was that the company did not adapt the design of the Sonata for North American customers [ 18 ]. Another important lesson was learned when Hyundai made the decision to start production in Turkey because of the lower cost for workers. Because of the lower wages management decided to use more hand-operated technology instead of the automated manufacturing processes utilized in its domestic plants.


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  7. From these experiences Hyundai learned the importance of researching the culture of a country before making profound business decisions. Cross-culture communication involves adapting organizational policies to fit the context of where business transactions will occur. This customer-oriented management style requires organizational leaders to be receptive to new ideas and to think outside the box. To encourage employees to expand their cultural awareness the company encourages three-month assignments to its overseas sites.

    For example, when the company was building a site in Alabama it allowed employees to visit and study the culture [ 19 ]. The company promotes an employee backpack travel program around the globe where teams of three design their cultural experience. The teams compete for a company sponsorship of day expeditions by writing what they hope to learn [ 19 ].

    More than 47 teams have traveled to 70 countries, including Peru, Turkey, and Greece [ 19 ]. Employees that participate bring back what they learn and share it with their colleagues. During a visit to the Asan Plant located in Chungchungnam-do, Korea, it was very apparent of how the company is being innovative.

    The trouble with culture | Researching Cultural Differences in Health | Taylor & Francis Group

    The plant has a production capacity of , units and utilizes the latest in robotic technology to assemble vehicles Tour Guide, personal communication, July 27, The plant operates two ten-hour shifts and provides numerous incentives for employees that are innovative on the job. The researchers proposed attending the 2nd Korea-America Student Conference in order to develop a relationship with participants that have a vested interest in global issues and to define the criteria for the proposed cross-culture communication model by using various qualitative methods.

    These objectives were accomplished and much insight gained into understanding how culture affects communication. Samsung and Hyundai are only two examples of organizations that are effectively communicating cross-culturally. Both organizations have been able to learn from their past mistakes and create strategies that support their growth in the global market. The sharing of information makes it possible for other organizations to also benefit from the mistakes made by these organizations. How true it is that a simple smile can break down communication barriers and build bridges of understanding.

    Cross-culture communication is not easy, especially when we are unfamiliar with the receiver of the information. Organizational leaders that have to communicate cross-culturally can use the following steps:. Mistakes are a normal part life and at times if we are not careful our mistakes can have lasting consequences.

    The cross-culture communication model developed from this study provides a mechanism for obtaining feedback from the global market. The model identifies the barriers to cross-culture communication and summarizes the outcomes that can be achieved when these barriers are tackled. The results of study verified that the five independent variables of acceptance, conflict, individualism, risk, and sharing could be used to predict country residence. A limitation to this study was the small sample size that used. In order to validate the validity and reliability of the study a larger sample size should be used in future studies.

    The participants of the study were also aware of the need to increase cultural awareness and displayed a desire to gain a deeper understanding of American and Korean relations. The study adds to the current body of knowledge on cross-culture communication by demonstrating the importance of culture in business settings.

    Organizational cross-functionality or connectivity is essential to innovation because it brings together a diverse group of people from different functional backgrounds [ 20 ]. Management must take steps to ensure that cross-functionality does not create conflict and hinder communication within the team [ 20 ]. To effectively generate innovation the level of expertise and individual skill set of each team member must be ascertained. The innovation process is supported when members share a common vision and goal.

    Research indicates that cross-functional teams are more effective at new produce development that is valued by the customer [ 21 ]. Leadership is the foundation to cross-functionality because it provides the oversight and direction necessary for it to work. Leaders that are innovators are receptive to change and value feedback from those around them. They recognize that they cannot be successful unless those around them are successful. For innovative organizations it is necessary for management to develop innovative leaders. This is done by having in place recruitment strategies that target successful applicants that possess the skills necessary to the organization to the next level [ 22 ].

    There should also be in place a well-developed talent-management process that identifies innovators, connects them to the mission of the organization, and provides the necessary internal resources for them to be successful. The model consists of four key factors: communication, conflict, creativity, and connectivity. Being aware of what types of individuals make good global leaders allows the organization to develop HR policies to support recruitment and succession. By creating a pipeline of capable global leaders the organization is able to sustain innovation and change.

    Leaders are the main link responsible for harnessing the ideas of employees to create innovation. They must also assess the development of their competitors and the needs of customers. Bringing together individuals from different cultural backgrounds will lead to conflict; however, this does not have to be perceived as a negative. The challenge for global leaders is to use the conflict as a benefit for the organization.

    Gehani and Gehani define conflict as simply the result of natural differences that occur between people from different backgrounds [ 23 ]. Different ideas and views lead to innovation and new products and services. From this perspective leaders should encourage healthy conflict. If there were no conflict to spark discussion there would be no innovation.

    Communication helps to moderate the relationship between conflict and innovation. This fact is furthermore impacted by the complexity of competing in global environment. Leaders must be aware of the communication styles that are needed when working with multicultural teams. The use of the email, conference calls, and other technological innovations to communicate need to be addressed to ensure that all members are able to participate fully.

    When members feel they are not able to communicate openly innovation is hindered and the organization suffers. As global competition continues to increase, successful organizations must evolve to meet the changing needs of consumers. Creativity is directly linked to communication and innovation. Increased attention on innovation has caused organizational leaders to develop systems to manage the process and support the efforts of employees. It is easier to implement innovation when the culture of the organization allows for employee feedback, planning, and evaluation.

    Employees play a vital role in innovation. In research conducted by Barnett and Storey it was found that there was a strong connection between learning and innovation in organizations [ 25 ]. The researchers studied employees at a manufacturing company, Tensator, located in the United Kingdom. Instead of focusing solely on keeping top management positions filled, the organization seeks to keep the pipeline of skilled laborers in amble supply to support innovation. This strategy requires the company to continually provide learning and development opportunities for employees to ensure that they remain at the top of their game.

    Microsoft is applying a holistic approach to innovation in seeking to compete with Yahoo and Google in the development of search engines [ 26 ]. Management is aware they must do more than simply try to catch up with their competitors; they must redesign the way that search engines are viewed and utilized. The holistic approach is further supported by Porter in work done with organizations to help them improve their supply chains [ 27 ]. Organizations that use a holistic approach are able to obtain a broader view of how they fit into the global market.

    Instead of focusing on small segments of their business operations, attention is given to the entire process. This allows for the organization to implement innovation that will create value for customers. Employees must feel contacted to the organization and understand how their individual effort contributes to the bottom line. Global leaders must look for opportunities to connect everyone within the organization to the overall goals and objectives.

    When employees understand the big picture and the direction the organization is taking innovation and change are supported. The business environment is continually evolving and global leaders must persistently develop new organization strategies to meet global challenges. Although, Samsung and Hyundai both compete in different industries there are parallels that can be gleamed from how they communicate and inspire innovation from their employees. The core aspects of global leadership critical to leading innovation and change are vision, communication, and responsibility.

    In a group of scholars and business leaders identified twenty-five factors that are important for managers in implementing innovation [ 28 ]. Key among them was that management must have a clear vision for the organization. The organizational vision provides a roadmap for employees by defining what the organization hopes to accomplish. Communication is important because it allows for the exchange and refinement of ideas. Effective communication requires that organizations not become bogged down with hierarchal thinking that can typically slow down the communication process.

    Large organizations must operate like small organizations and be able to respond quickly to organizational and market changes [ 28 ]. Successful organizations must focus on goals that are socially responsible [ 28 ]. Innovation is not just creating the coolest new gadget but it is creating the coolest new gadget that serves the environment in a sustainable manner. As organizations become more global the focus on corporate social responsibility increases.

    Organizations can no longer operate within a silo. The actions of one organization can affect many others. According to Westlund it is no longer sufficient for organizations only to make a profit and comply with the law [ 29 ]. They must also be socially responsible and give something back to the global community that they serve. Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.

    Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Edited by Hector Cuadra-Montiel. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Built by scientists, for scientists. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: Introduction In a global environment the ability to communicate effectively can be a challenge.

    Training and development of individuals involved in intercultural interactions should involve more than simply promoting cultural adaptation Communication is vital for businesses to effectively explain how their products and services differ from their competitors. Literature review Research on cross-cultural communication often focuses on understanding how individual differences influence our ability to communicate with others.

    Methodology A qualitative and quantitative research strategy consisting of group observations, interviews, and surveys were used to gather information.

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    Table 1. Variables in Cross-Cultural Communication Study. Results A multiple regression analysis was conducted to evaluate how well the five independent variables for culture predict the country of residence. Error of the Estimate 1. Dependent Variable: Residence. Predictors Correlation between each predictor and the country of residence index Correlation between each predictor and the country of residence index controlling for all other predictors Acceptance. Table 3. Cross-cultural communication model The purpose of communication is to transfer ideas and knowledge from one entity to the other.

    Samsung and Hyundai To illustrate how companies can utilize the cross-culture communication model to improve business practices consider the examples of Samsung and Hyundai. Conclusion The researchers proposed attending the 2nd Korea-America Student Conference in order to develop a relationship with participants that have a vested interest in global issues and to define the criteria for the proposed cross-culture communication model by using various qualitative methods.

    Organizational leaders that have to communicate cross-culturally can use the following steps: Develop clear and concise expectations for how the organization will accomplish its mission; Ensure that employees understand their role in the organization; Be willing to invest time to communicate; Remember that communication is a two-way process, listen before you speak. More Print chapter. How to cite and reference Link to this chapter Copy to clipboard.

    Cite this chapter Copy to clipboard Lowell C. Matthews and Bharat Thakkar August 17th Available from:. Over 21, IntechOpen readers like this topic Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers Suggest a book topic Books open for submissions. More statistics for editors and authors Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Access personal reporting. Mitchell and Selin Yildiz Nielsen. More About Us. A measure of how important it is for an individual to be liked and accepted by others.

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